Bitcoin Calculator – CryptoCurry

Primecoin

Primecoin is an innovative cryptocurrency, a form of digital currency secured by cryptography and issued through a decentralized mining market. Derived from Satoshi Nakamoto's Bitcoin, Primecoin introduces an unique form of proof-of-work based on searching for prime numbers.
[link]

Primecoin

Discussion about Primecoin and its infra. Primecoin is a very innovative cryptocurrency, being the 1st non Hash-Cash PoW crypto, naturally scarce (not artificially), with very fast confirmations (1min), elastic readjusting reward & a useful mining (byproducts are primes). Primecoin is sustainable (miners are guaranteed to have revenues), and decentralized (ASIC/FPGA are not particularly advantaged). Sidechain for decentralized data applications (e.g. Storj) currently in development.
[link]

Litecoin mining!

Since the litecoin community is growing, I've decided to introduce /litecoinmining, a place for all discussion revolving mining litecoins!
[link]

Current bitcoin value calculation & conversion of cryptocoins

Realtime btc price prediction in usd live current bitcoin value converter best news about technical analysis exchange rate today tomorrow crypto day trading
submitted by farazkhanniazi to u/farazkhanniazi [link] [comments]

Current bitcoin value calculation & conversion of cryptocoins

Realtime btc price prediction in usd live current bitcoin value converter best news about technical analysis exchange rate today tomorrow crypto day trading
submitted by farazkhanniazi to u/farazkhanniazi [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to ethereum [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to privacycoins [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to ethtrader [link] [comments]

What is Cryptocurrency Mining?

There are various ways of gaining cryptocurrencies and one major way is through cryptocurrency mining. So, Cryptofactsbc will help you understand what is cryptocurrency Mining and how to mine these cryptos. There is nothing to worry about because we will give you everything you need to know about cryptocurrency mining and suggest some steps to follow if you want to mine cryptocurrencies. Let us dig into our topic for the day, What is cryptocurrency Mining?

Understanding Mining

When we take Gold Mining for example miners go into pits to dig for Gold, others use machines one the surface on the lands to detect possible places where Gold will be located.. They find and wash the gold and refine it and get it ready to be sold. That is how Gold mining is done in the real world but when we come to the crypto world it is slightly different. For our fiat currency, the government decides the quantity to be printed and when to print and circulate them because it is centralised.

Cryptocurrency Mining

Cryptocurrency Mining is the process where by verified transactions are added to a ledger which is known as Blockchain. Crypto coins are decentralized therefore no authority or government persons can order for the circulation of cryptos. Mining Cryptocoins is an arms race that rewards early adopters. Anyone can participate in mining provided they have the necessary materials to start.
I am pretty sure you have heard pf Bitcoins, the first decentralised cryptocurrency that was released in early 2009. Similar digital currencies have crept into the world-wide market since then, including a spin-off from Bitcoin called Bitcoin Cash. You can get in on the cryptocurrency rush if you take the time to learn the basics properly.

Methods of Cryptocurrency Mining

There are various ways of mining and we will look a few methods; Cloud Mining Basically these are some of the cryptocurrencies that can be mined, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Thether, Bitcoin Cash and others. The main cryptocurrency we will talk about it’s mining is Bitcoin. Cloud Mining is process whereby miners pay money to rent some hardware from a host company. A company owns bitcoin hardware and then gives them out on rent so miners in-turn rent part of these bitcoin hardware and utilize them remotely.

CPU Mining

The use of Central Processing Unit of your computer, which is the brain of your computer was the very first method people adopted for mining bitcoins when bitcoins were first launched in the year 2009. Back then the mining difficulty was very low so just your CPU could help your gain some huge fractions of Bitcoins. But as stuff were advancing the mining difficulty increase and became higher so people started to look for something better and higher than a normal CPU.

GPU Mining

When technology was advancing, Graphics Processing Units were created. They are programmable electronic chip or circuit that helps the computer to solve complex problems. Most Especially for gamer to be to install games with high graphics requirements on the computer. GPU become very popular therefore people began to use them to mine for bitcoins and amazingly the mining power of 1 GPU equals about 30 CPUs. So, in order for you to gain higher fractions of bitcoins as mine you need to upgrade whiles the system also advances.

FPGA Mining

Another invention came into the system to out smart the GPU mining which was the FPGA. It is an integrated circuit that also helps the computer to carry out a set of calculations. It is almost 10- 100 times better and faster than GPU mining.

ASIC Mining

The full meaning of ASIC is Application Specific Integrated Circuit and it was a breed of miner that was introduced in the year 2019. The sole purpose of this ASIC was to mine bitcoins so you can imagine how fast it would be.
submitted by cryptofactsbc to u/cryptofactsbc [link] [comments]

What's the difficulty algorithm for Beam?

I'm looking to add a mining calculator for BEAM to an app of mine. I presume there a difficulty run through an equation with miner hashrate like Bitcoin, but is it calculated in the same exact manner, or is it a different equation than Bitcoin?
Here is my bitcoin mining calculator, as an example of what I mean:
https://github.com/taoteh1221/DFD_Cryptocoin_Values/blob/masteapp-lib/php/othecalculators/bitcoin-mining-calculator.php#L32
which is derived from here:
https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Difficulty
Also, if anybody knows of a good API for getting BEAM block height / difficulty that would be awesome.
submitted by dragonfrugal to beamprivacy [link] [comments]

Why are we not talking about "monetizing" the whitelist?

On the one hand, I feel like Gridcoin has found a wonderfully elegant solution to circumvent the wasteful nature of PoW secured blockchains. Getting paid for doing work with intrinsic value (scientific research); it makes so much sense, you would think it should be the basis of all economy.
On the other hand, it struggles with the same problems as all other cryptocurrencies, except for maybe the top five: there is no intrinsic value to owning Gridcoins. Money exists to be exchanged for goods and services, not just to be sold in exchange for other types of money in the future. I see only two reasons why a person with honest intentions would want to buy cryptocurrencies (again, possibly with the exception of Bitcoin and a handful of other popular coins which can nowadays be used in some stores). Perhaps they believe that the value of the coin will increase in the future (because sufficiently many other people happen to think the same way) so they can sell it and make a profit; this to me seems like just a form of gambling and can hardly be called an honest investment, unless the coin finds a way to make itself useful in the future. The other reason might be - especially for Gridcoin - out of generosity: they want to support the project and reward people participating. This is commendable, but again not a proper investment.
Neither of these motivations will appeal to a rational investor, so as long as Gridcoin keeps relying on them to sustain itself, its long-term value (and thus relevance) will keep decreasing over time. I will even be so bold to say that anyone who claims otherwise is a very optimistic thinker at best, or at worst someone who just wants to see the value of their own coins grow at the expense of some naive buyers. I do not mean this as a personal attack to anyone, and invite anyone to prove me wrong.
Now for Gridcoin, more so than for any other cryptocoin currently on the consumer market, I see a very natural solution to this problem: instead of whitelisting by poll - an overly centralised process, by the way - let researchers buy their products into the whitelist.
There are of course many practical questions to address here. Do we have an automatically calculated price depending on the amount of work in the project and the number of coins in circulation, or do we want to auction spots on the whitelist to increase value? Should we sacrifice all regulation of what kinds of projects are allowed on the whitelist, or do we still need a system to "blacklist" projects which are deemed unethical by the community? Do we keep popular BOINC projects on the whitelist if they do not want to pay for whitelisting but are very popular in the community? I am not trying to answer these questions here today, just want to open the discussion.
Perhaps I am oversimplyfing - please let me know, I am eager to learn! - but I basically see only winners in this scenario. The value and thus relevancy of Gridcoin will increase. More people will join once word gets out that they can let their computers do some science on the background and earn money (nowadays, mining GRC profitably is still possible only under optimal conditions), meaning more computing power used for good. The cost to research institutions buying computing power will be peanuts compared to buying enough powerful computers on their own to run huge amounts of calculations quickly. Provided that the demand for computational power can keep up with the supply of Gridcoin miners, this should hopefully lead to a more stable and reliable value for Gridcoin, which in turn might attract vendors to accept the coin as payment method. This last point seems like the main point of uncertainty to me: will research institutions trust the network enough to invest money in it?
What are your thoughts?
submitted by Hopkins-Levitzki to gridcoin [link] [comments]

How I earn effortless passive income and how you can do, too! (includes refs)

Hey guys,

I'm a twenty-something student from Germany starting his journey to generate passive income and I would like to share my plan with you and maybe inspire you. I really start from scratch and being a STEM-related student money is tight and time is scarce, but I'm dedicated to get this shit up. So, here's what I'm going to do:

Getting some basic passive income up by running auto-surfing websites as much as I can. Claiming 1-2 times per day from a crypto faucet (takes so little time that i consider it passive). Using this income to invest into more sustainable passive income businesses like for example my t-shirt business or stockphotography. Designing a few designs every week to additionally get it going. Endgame: Youtube-Channel in the tutoring niche of a highly demanded but not yet provided topic in my subject. Maybe a unrelated health blog with affiliate links, let's see. Daydreaming, man. However, in this post I will just focus on the stuff you don't need time or money for to generate a basic passive income each month. I really encourage you to use this income to invest in further sources of passive income as they are all very unsustainable, but a good way to get that shit started.

But yeah, back to the small stuff´for now. Websites that generate passive income simply for leaving them open. It's called autosurfing and it's basically a website that pays you a small amount of money each minute to keep a tab open that redirects you to several sites. It is financed by websites paying the owner to get traffic. Most of them are fairly new so there is no payment proof for all of them yet and maybe one or two can turn out as a scam, but I give them a shot. I mean, hey it's free and you do not need to invest either time or money to get started. Just keep them all open in a window and forget about them. Needless to say they do not make you rich. You better find out for yourself, it's a real easy way to get some extra bucks. The links are ref-links which give both of us a small bonus. I will list pay per minute, minimum payout and max per month if you manage to run them 24/7 (which I don't, but maybe some of you are interested in it). You can cash out via paypal. Starting the list with the highest-paying ones. They all have the same layout, you just need to register individually for each one and click the start earning button.

1) Autosurfing

Cashmining.org $0,001/min. Min Withdrawal: $10. Max/30days: $43,2
This one seems too good to be true. But if they are legit I don't want to be the one missing out. Especially as it takes no effort at all to get it running and you can't lose, right? Can be a bit buggy when registrating. Just try a few times in case that happens.
getcashfree.info $0,0002/min. Min Withdrawal: $3. Max/30days: $8,46
Second highest paying one. Fairly new.
fastcashmining.com $0,00015/min. Min Withdrawal: $2,50. Max/30days: $6,48
miningtraffic.com $0,00012/min. Min Withdrawal: $1,50. Max/30days: $5,19
cashminingbot.com $0,0001/min. Min Withdrawal: $1,00. Max/30days: $4,32
moneymining.xyz $0,0001/min. Min Withdrawal: $2,00. Max/30days: $4,32
fancitos.com $0,0001/min. Min Withdrawal: $2,00. Max/30days: $4,32 -> spanish one, but easy to navigate

EDIT: There are some new now. I wrote a guide about autosurfing on medium to get you started. Check it out!

This can stack up to $76,29 a month if run 24/7. You get the point. If you only leave them open for 12 hours a day it's still like $38 dollar. There are also premium programs which can increase your earnings even further, but I want a few payments from a site before I look into them. There are few other websites which I skip here because the minimum withdrawal is way too high for the rate they pay or they're not available in english.

Another similiar website I can recommend is ebesucher.com. You can use their surfbar and it automatically directs you to websites that pay ebesucher money for traffic. Just like the other sites. It's a bit hard to calculate here since points per visited site do vary, but I estimate that it pulls in about $6 max per month if run non-stop.

Get all these websites running in one window and add radioearn.com for another roundabout $8,75 a month. You simply have to open 4 tabs with a radio (you can mute them) and get paid 1 point every 15 minutes. 1000 Points translate into $3,05 (January 19).

There are also Apps that pay you cash for swiping a banner away every time you unlock your phone or pay you to receive a few test-sms every other day, but I haven't looked into them yet. I will do so soon and update the post. Oh, and don't forget phone farming! True effortless passive income is real lol.

Well, wanna hear more options how you can easily earn some money each month with very low effort? Don't be afraid of cryptos if you aren't into them yet. You'll get into them pretty soon, I promise. And you should definitely give them a try considering that they can rise pretty high in value and can easily be converted to cash if you don't want to keep them. Free money is money, after all.

2) Cryptocurrency

So, now at first you need a wallet to do anything with bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. There are a lot of free alternatives, just search the internet to get started. Personally, I use Atomic-wallet on my Laptop.

Next step you need to register on Coinpot.co. It is a microwallet where all your earnings from the following faucets are directly transfered to without a fee. A faucet is a website with a lot of ads on it that pays the visiter a share of the revenue in cryptocoin. Problem with most faucets is that you can claim the same amount of cryptos every set time, for example all 15 minutes you get 30 satoshi (bitcoin-unit), but if you claim every 50 minutes you'll also get 30 satoshi. And in most cases you need to accumulate a very big amount of coins to get them transferred to your wallet. This is not the problem with coinpot, however. The featured faucets all stack up. This is the big advantage. You can claim them every 5 minutes, but also only once a day or even every second day and the amount you get will still keep on getting higher. The withdrawal amount to get them to your wallet is also very low (3,6$ worth of cryptos) and can be easily reached within like 15 days. So yeah, I recommend you to get yourself a second e-mail for coinbot and the following stuff. Coinpot has a really nice layout and supports 5 different cryptocurrencies (Litecoin, Bitcoin, Bitcoincash, Dash, Dogecoin), which you can exchange for one another without fees. I always transfer all my cryptocoins and the tokens (you get tokens as bonus points every claim) to bitcoin to be able to withdraw them faster. Okay, so here's what you do:

You register on coinpot. And then you sign up with the same mail on these faucets:
Moonbitcoin faucet for Bitcoin
Moonlitecoin faucet for Litecoin
Moondogecoin faucet for Dogecoin
Moondashcoin faucet for Dash
Moonbitcoincash faucet for Bitcoincash
Bitfun another faucet for Bitcoin
(If you have some more spare time you can also join Bonusbitcoin, it won't stack up, but you can claim every 15 minutes and it will reward you with a daily bonus. Pays pretty decent, but isn't really that passive.

Here's how it works: The amount you get will stack up until you claim. When you claim you need to resolve a short chapta to prove you're human and you will receive your cryptos directly in your coinpot wallet. You will get tokens for each claim you make which you can exchange for cryptos. You will also receive a bonus each time you claim. +1% per each day you claim in a row and a random bonus between 0-100% which is really cool especially when you wait long for them to stack up and then receive some 87% bonus lol. You can claim every 5 minutes if you want, but it's not really worth your time. I suggest claiming them 1-2x a day, only 1x for the most passive way and to get your daily bonus going up. I claim them every now and then, mostly like 1-3x a day, sometimes when I'm on my laptop anyway and bored more often and I generate like $5 worth of cryptos a month. Considering you don't do anything but click the captchas a few times a day which takes you like 2 minutes for all of them it's a very nice small income stream.

Another cryptorelated thing which truly is completely passive is Mannabase. You should definitely check them out! They have a very appealing website and their vision is to create a universal basic income for every human being. You need to register, verify your ID to them and they will pay you some Manna every week without you doing anything. You can exchange this coin for bitcoin or dollar then.

3) Other stuff

This isn't actually passive, but I always keep Profilic.ac open, when I'm on my laptop. It is an academic survey portal that actually pays very high (like 9 British Pounds) per hour. They don't have many surveys, so I'll always let the window open and check from time to time if there is a survey I can reserve for myself.

I sometimes also use Grindabuck.com for some passive video watching and the daily check in bonus. Video section is a bit buggy though, so you need to babysit it a little more than the autosurf-websites. It's like Swagbucks where you can fill out surveys and stuff. But I don't invest much time on those, just do a survey once a while to get to the withdrawal amount on those. Oh, and Swagbucks is pretty nice for Cashback here in Germany.

So, yeah. That's my guide to all of the shit I do on the internet lol. You can easily pull in up to $80-90 a month if you're dedicated. It's up to you how much you use this stuff, but I think it's a good start to passive income. I aim for a minimum of $40 a month to invest in my more sustainable passive income businesses and try not to miss any free opportunities on my way. Right now I got a browser window open making money for me and another one with cryptos waiting to be claimed while I write this post. You could do that, too! Absolutely no effort besides the initial setup. If you use my referral-links you get some bonuses, support my journey and I hope you can start yours soon, too.

So long. Happy earnings and keep grinding!
submitted by kryptanthrax to clicksforbeermoney [link] [comments]

The intelligent investors guide to cryptocurrency: Part 3a - The value proposition

*Introductions: I'm joskye. A cryptocurrency investor and SDC holder. *
...
Hi again. This is the third part in our ongoing series on how to trade better and determine intelligent investments in cryptocurrency for the future.
In part 3 I will now discuss Cryptocurrency valuations, price metrics and identifying coins of value, worth holding.
...
What makes a coin worth holding: The value proposition
What makes anything worth holding? How much of themselves is a person willing to put into it - that's how much.
Cryptocurrency is largely driven by faith. It is a speculative enterprise i.e. people mostly put money into cryptocurrencies believing they will go up in value in the future; their plan to sell at a higher price when it does.
Currently most cryptocurrencies serve no function than being currencies in themselves. Unfortunately these currencies are largely not recognised by governments, most institutional investors or companies are legitimate stores of value or legitimate currencies of transaction. As such legislation and rules around the world regarding them vary considerably and are often absent.
There are very few cryptocurrencies that have legitimised backing, are insured or supported by enterprises that are insured for their loss and essentially there is little to protect you if you lose money through them.
So why do people bother putting money into cryptocurrencies it in the first place?
If the present and future value of a cryptocurrency is driven purely by speculation then you are essentially gambling by putting your money to buy that coin and joining the pool of other gamblers who are doing so. You are essentially joining a ponzi scheme and waiting game hoping you've gotten in early enough and convinced enough people to buy more of the asset you hold at slightly higher prices until a price is reached that you can cash out at (or until that thing becomes so big that everyone starts using it as their store of value).
This type of dynamic essentially underpins the mentality of most investments and trades i.e. buy low and sell high. I'd like to add buy early for investors since buying during a low in an already established asset may be setting yourself up for being forced to sell at a lower low later (especially if you don't understand the fundamentals of that asset).
If however the present or future value of a cryptocurrency is driven by some service other than speculation which can attract and drive fiat currency into it's ecosystem then it is potentially valuable.
I.e. will people actually use their USD/Yuan/Euro/GBP/Yen/INR etc to actually purchase the coin in question to do something useful with it (other than gamble on it's future price).
There are some cryptocurrencies which satisfy this criteria:
...
Bitcoin
It is not a currency, it is a remittance system and store of value. It has a reputation increasingly to being seen as a digital version of gold.
Bitcoin has the cultural and historical advantage of being the first cryptocurrency. It is also still the largest cryptocurrency by a long way with the largest marketcap i.e. price per bitcoin [$952 as of writing] x the number of bitcoin in circulation [16,074,687] which is $15.3 billion. Compare to it's next biggest competitor Ethereum which has a marketcap of $700 million (i.e. only 4.57% of Bitcoin's).
Bitcoin's value proposition is that it is a store of value. It may not be able to sustain this without significant upgrades to it's underlying software.
...
Monero (XMR)
Bitcoin does not have anonymity inherently built into it's software. Therefore if you buy and sell Bitcoin especially on cryptocurrency exchanges (where user registration is required), it is possible to trace whom Bitcoin is being transferred from and to.
For this reason I see Monero as Bitcoin + anonymity. I.e. it's value proposition is as store of hidden wealth. I also believe it does not have the issues that bitcoin does namely, same level of mainstream recognition, spotlight of regulatory awareness and developers do seem to be more focused on achieving better scalability and transaction times (it already does 10-20 minute verification time vs bitcoins 1 hour) which gives it better potential as a currency presently compared to Bitcoin.
-This sort of market cap dwarfs gold. However this type of up-scaled usability will not occur until the transaction verification times are much faster (nanoseconds) and the protocol is enhanced to cope with much larger transactions volumes and frequency at that speed; We are a long way off that.
I do believe fiat stored in Bitcoin will gradually transfer into Monero boosting it's value. I am not sure Monero though can presently bring fresh fiat currency (USD, Yuan etc) into it's ecosystem beyond outsider speculation in future price.
It is not unique in it's function or potential value proposition. My warning about holding Monerofor the long term is that it has competition for it's function not just from Bitcoin itself but from other anonymous coins such as Zcash, DASH (which provides instantaneous settlement) and SDC. Perhaps more importantly, Ethereum (ETH) is now planning to implement optional anonymity (via zSNARKs) in it's transaction network; if it does when combined with Ethereum's own functionality and well defined development roadmap (that will likely several second verification times in late 2017) would render XMR potentially redundant.
...
Ethereum (ETH)
The value proposition for Ethereum is that it allows for complex, trustless settlement systems to be built on it. This is a huge deal because the scope of applications is wide and although the technology needs to mature (to support greater transaction volume, frequency and more secure functionality) the sheer amount of fiat such a platform could attract through conversion of traditional centralised settlement and contract services to more secure decentralised platforms is very huge.
...
Shadowcash (SDC)
The value proposition is a double escrow, fully anonymous, decentralised privacy platform which incorporates private chat, private marketplace and secure, trustless private settlement system into one platform that is fully integrated into it's own blockchain.
Shadowcash already has multiple features that make it an excellent store of value: Low coin supply, potential for great demand, near instantaneous transaction verification times, ability to earn interest for simply holding it.
Shadowcash is incredibly easy to use and is heavily focused on usability. This is absolutely essential to it's end users: customers who seek convenient easy and speedy secure anonymous transaction. This will be a dream come true for traditional users of darknet markets.
To explain why lets elaborate on traditional darknet markets where in order to transact anonymously you have to:
1. Download the TOR browser. 2. Learn how to use it. 3. Buy XMR or Bitcoin. 4. Learn how to transact with these coins *safely* (yes this is still an issue with XMR in spite of it's built in privacy). 5. Learn how to and where to find reliable secure darknet markets. 6. Create accounts on these markets to access them *and* 7. Have faith that the websites and the highly centralised (and thus much more vulnerable) servers hosting those markets you use will not get shut down, not disappear with your money and not betray your transaction details and potentially identities to the authorities should they be infiltrated by them. 
Whereas with Shadowcash's market place this process will become:
1. Download the Shadowcash Umbra client (https://shadowproject.io/en/gettingstarted) 2. Buy some SDC on an exchange and transfer it to your Umbra client. 3. Browse the Shadowcash marketplace and transact securely, safely and anonymously. 
In summary I think Shadowcash can be a very useful application as a privacy platform for private communications and transactions.
...
ICONOMI (ICN)
Those two points constitute it's value proposition. By nature of the way it works it has an easily identifiable P/E ratio based on the amount used to create the fund ($10.5 million) against the current value of that fund based on it's
...
Summary lessons
The first rule in investing or trading in a given cryptocoin is deciding if it has a value proposition:
1. *Can it draw fiat currency (USD, Euro, Yuan etc) in such a way as to give it a valuation that is fully independent of pure speculation?* 2. *Is it unique?* 3. *Is it rare?* A limited supply with a low or negative inflation rate will lead to increasing price as demand goes up. 4. Are there significant risks associated with the value proposition? 
In the next article I will cover lesson 3b: Price metrics and valuations. It will be much shorter I promise but equally informative and we will cover topics such as price determination, impact of speculation, price manipulation, whales and their impact and the impact of bitcoin on the entire cryptocurrency ecosystem.
Finally just to really hammer it home; why am I posting this on the Shadowcash subreddit?
It is because Shadowcash is the best cryptocurrency investment of 2016 and I believe it will be again by March 2017.
...
References:
1. Crypto-Currency Market Capitalizations, https://coinmarketcap.com/, Last Checked 30/01/2017 2. What is the value of all the Gold in the world? http://onlygold.com/Info/All-The-Gold-In-The-World.asp, Last Checked 30/01/2017. 3. ICONOMI Cryptocurrencies Index (ICNX) 21 December 2016 Rebalancing, https://medium.com/iconominet/iconomi-cryptocurrencies-index-icnx-21-december-2016-rebalancing-transformation-into-iconomi-8e31e48493ab#.sptgljv1c 4. ICNx trend chart, https://medium.com/iconominet/iconomi-cryptocurrencies-index-icnx-30-november-2016-monthly-rebalancing-update-3402866243d9#.kw7g4fqcd, Last updated 30th Nov 2017 5. Shadowcash (SDC) - The billion dollar baby!, https://medium.com/@paradox_/shadowcash-sdc-the-billion-dollar-baby-6b86f0660739#.ypz9yme5a, Last updated 16 August 2016. 
...
Disclaimer: I am not responsible for your financial decisions, nor am I advising you take a particular financial position. Rather I am sharing my experiences and hoping you form your own opinions and insights from them. Full disclosure: I have long positions in Ethereum (ETH), Shadowcash (SDC), ICONOMI (ICN), Augur (REP) and Digix (DGD).
submitted by joskye to Shadowcash [link] [comments]

Mining Allocation Explained. If you found this post useful, use my code: D1KsgV

Hi Guys,
So I've invested a bit of money into Genesis mining and was always wondering how the mining allocation worked, after reading about it on various forums and emailing the company directly I've finally figured it out. I wanted to share my findings for the benefit of this community.
One of my purchases was 10 TH/s of BTC on an open ended contract. I wanted to know based on the fees and all what sort of profit I would get mining Dash (Auto). The Auto on any of the allocation pages is explained by the excerpt from the FAQ page from Genesis mining:
By default all hashpower is allocated to BTC for all algorithms, and hence you will receive your payouts in BTC. The Genesis Mining Advanced Auto-Trader (in short “AUTO”) will apply to algorithms which cannot mine BTC directly. If you are interested in mining different cryptocoins, you can do this as well. In the user interface go to “Mining Allocation” and choose the hashpower allocation that is best for you. When you are done press “save allocation”.
The question I had was with my 10 TH/s using the sha256 algorithim what sort of speed would I get by mining Dash (Auto). Effectively when you allocate any percentage to Dash (Auto) from your allocation page, you will receive Dash coins, not BTC. After mining this for 24 hours, I received 0.03966727 Dash coins.
I had to tinker around a little with the Mining Profitability Calculator
But I managed to find out that I can get 0.03964 Dash per day with 230 MH/s. Which is pretty close to the amount that I was able to mine with my sha256.
So what does this all mean? Well if I mined my daily BTC I was making about 0.00290866 BTC per day, which with a price of $2,613.87 per BTC equates to $7.60 per day (this is after their costs). If I allocated 100% to Dash I mined 0.03966727 per day, which equates to $7.36 per day with a Dash price of $185.46. The difference isn't that much, and is likely to fluctuate.
I decided to stay with BTC with my allocation, and purchase seperate Dash contracts.
tl;dr 10TH/s BTC open ended sha256 contract allocated to 100% Dash(Auto) produces a equivalent 230 MH/s rate.
A general explanation below, from the Genesis team:
On our mining allocation screens we have coins you can mine directly and those that you can not but you can get payouts in them if you wish. Those coins are marked with AUTO beside them. Auto means autotrade.
I will give you a general explanation of all of your mining options (it will also include explanation for the currently sold out contracts, for your future reference):
With Ether contracts, ETH and ETC can be mined directly. As BTC, ZEC and REP are not mined directly they are labelled (AUTO) so if you assign hashpower to them the following happens: ETH coins are mined and traded at payout time to the coin of your choice.
With Monero, only XMR can be mined directly. All other coins will be autotraded.
With a SHA 256 contract, Bitcoin, UNO and Zetacoin can be mined directly and if you want to have a payout in for example LTC or Doge, then you would assign hashpower to LTC (AUTO) and Doge(AUTO). How it works with a SHA 256 contract is as follows. WIll give an exampe with LTC (AUTO). When you allocate hashpower to LTC (AUTO) Bitcoin is being mined and then at payout time we autotrade the Bitcoin to Litecoin at the latest LTC/BTC exchange rate and then pay out Litecoin to a Litecoin wallet.
With the x11 the following coins can be mined directly: START and DASH. All other coins (BTC, LTC, DOGE, XMR…) will be autotraded, meaning: the mining will be in more profitable coin between START and DASH and then will be autotraded (all coins having AUTO next to the name) on the market with our autotrader to the chosen coin.
With the LiItecoin (currently sold out) contract the following coins can be mined directly: LTC and DOGE. All other coins (BTC, DASH and ZEC) will be autotraded.
Wth the Zcash (currently sold out) only ZEC can be mined directly. All other coins (BTC, ETH) will be autotraded, meaning: the mining will be in ZEC and then will be autotraded (all coins having AUTO next to the name) on the market with our autotrader to the chosen coin.
If you allocate hashpower to any other coins other than the ones in initial setting, then you will get a payout in these coins - that means you will need a wallet address for them coins (for example, a doge wallet for doge, a litecoin wallet address for Litecoin etc.)
Go to your account and under Mining allocation select your contract and see all your options there. If you make adjustments, don't forget to click Save allocation.
You'll have to select your contract first every time, to see your current allocation.
Hope that is helpful! Happy mining guys.
submitted by chiRal123 to GenesisMining [link] [comments]

Who loses more the investor or the environment?

I've been working in the financial market for years, and to be honest, I do not think Cryptocoins is an investment opportunity, for many personal reasons, which does not detract from who believes.
But I have a doubt, because after studying the subject, I did not find the answer, I did not find a rational reason, to answer the question: "What are the uses for the calculations made by crypto-coins?" in the broad sense, of course, a practical application, for example, several supercomputers make daily calculations, in relation to moving celestial bodies, sending rockets to space, among other physical applications.
Because if the sole purpose of the calculation is to be "rewarded" with the crypto-fraction, the possibilities for creating codes are infinite, and these infinite coins may have mining parameters of other infinite forms. One of the parameters is the same as bitcoin, limiting the number and possible amount of mining.
If compared to a CDB for example, the CDB remunerates based on the Bank Spread, you earn a fraction of profit on what financial institutions obtain through other credit operations and etc. In the same way the other numerous investment products.
The logic is always, someone will lose to you to win. The problem is that in these cryptocoins who loses, is the "investor" who buys the currency without proper knowledge, and the environment, because of the high energy expenditure involved in the mining process.
submitted by victortayguara to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Zen : A Decentralized Gold/Silver/Copper Monetary System.

Greetings,
I'm L.
I want to introduce my current research about a Decentralized Monetary System that is based on the concept of Gold, Silver and Copper. I give the system the name of "Zen".
The system use 9 types of money:
Gold Ren, Silver Ten and Copper Sen are 3 precious metal Grasshopper shape coin in pure Gold (4.00g), Silver (3.00g) and Copper (2.00g) that have different mechanical propriety according to the fineness of the coin which is usefull for fineness verification. And it can be printed by anyone with a 3D metal printer with the right fineness precious metal powder.
Golden Yen, Silver Ken and Bronze Jen are 3-in-1 cryptocurrency that use the golden ratio (1.618...), the silver ratio (2.414...) and bronze ratio (3.303...) to simulate the supply of physical Gold, Silver and Copper. And where the standard weight (in grams of the cryptocurrency) of a coin unit is calculated at each block and change automatically so each coin always have the correct fineness (% fees) with the possibility to access and recieve any coin with one private key. And it's possible by a global consenus to back the value of the coins to the physical coins (for exemple 1 YEN = 1 REN). And the network will find by itself the best weight for the cryptocoins to satistfy the backing without the need of an centralized Supply/Demande exchange to calculate the value of the coins.
Y-Network, K-Network and J-Network are 3-in-1 Channel Factories build on top of Golden Yen, Silver Ken and Bronze Jen where anyone in the network can melt down their coins to grams and make instant 100% pure grams (zero fee) to any person in the network and at the end remint the grams to standard coins. And the network nodes are station unit called Zen Towers that offer the exchange of all the 9 types of money with providing cellular 5G/Wifi node. And with the offering of physical coin exchange will make the channel distributed around the earth with no centralized hubs/nodes.
In this monetary system, the do(Zen)al base is used for pricing good and services. The dozenal or the numerical base 12 make counting, addition, substraction, multiplication and division of prices easy which make it the most efficient base for commerce and trading.
To learn more please visit: http://wmjtj2j57mcvs7ms.onion/
I will just add a comment that, in the actual computer architecture with hierarchical memory and wire based internet communication. There is a possibility that Golden Yen, Silver Ken and Bronze Jen will fail at some point even with automatic block size (or density) adaptation and channel factories. So if there is an implementation of it in the actual architecture I will see it only as an "Experiment". It's a good thing because it will prepare us for the real implementation on the next generation machines.
The Golden Yen, Silver Ken and Bronze Jen need a machine/computesmartphone/smarthing with pool of fast memristors base memory connecter with a photonic fiber to a pool of highly parralizable and specialized CPU that communicate with other similar peers with an external high bandwidth cellular base wireless communication.
Hewlett Packard Corporation have already made some research about this type of machine. For many years they havent give it a name yet, they call it only "The Machine". (I believe because it's my destiny to name it... just kidding HP! Dont take it seriously! Dont sue me! :P).
I give it that type of machine the name of "Nen" the same name as the Human Enhancer Technology introduced by M. The decentralized and anonymous high speed cellular internet build on top of Nen including the 3 cryptocurrency the name of "Zen". And the decentralized and distributed Global Brain Machine build on top of Nen and Zen, where anyone can share their memories and CPU for grams in a Hashgraph like protocol and where anyone can do anything he can imagined like store or compute data, search, play, collaborate. I give that World Machine the name of "Den".
This still in research and development project is open to anyone. We dont believe on Copyright nor any Intellectual Right that need trust to some centralized authority or some centralized believe system. In our believes, we dont have the right to claim an idea the same as we dont have the right a terrotory. The earth os a gift to humanity, we believe that no one have the right to claim it for himself nor claim a part of it. So anyone can join and particpate, suggest their own ideas or modifications or critics, model and print their own metal coin and give review and suggestion. Implement the codes, include it in their projects or propose a better process or any other standard for the decentralized monetary system.
I want aslo invite everyone to check the human Enhancement Technology "Nen" Introduced by M and try to get initiated to it. And all I can tell you about it, is without his guidance and teaching in Nen, I will never dream to achieve what I have achieved now in my research.
If anyone want to support us and donate some satoshis, there is our bitcoin address at the end of every pages in the website.
It's a pleasure to meet all people in this sub.
submitted by 9fRjigBqHQNwWyYi to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Thoughts and Ideas Regarding Mining

Link to @Daniel_Plante Thread

I'm going to retweet a twitter convo I had on 2019-03-17, reformatted to make it clearer. It's about mining, and #Bitcoin's survivability.
The thread included @petertoddbtc, @VinnyLingham, @BitcoinORama, @misterdna and @desantis IIRC. FYI: () means comment by me after the fact, and [] means a later edit to make things a little more clear. Here it is, comments welcome:
Thanks Mr Mendez (@misterdna), yes I already read it. Too much talking, not enough listening. This question might interest you Alex (@BitcoinORama):
if a hash+memory based cryptocoin proof took [off], would you expect Corsair (Micron?) would include one tiny hash core per DRAM die?
The DRAM industry is at the top of its product adoption S-curve. Razor thin margins, supply contracts years into the future, and R&D cycles give 2% improvement/year. It's not possible to dominate that industry [the way Bitcoin ASIC designers did] with less than $50B and 10 years. DRAM is what's known as a "commodity [mature] product" - not "commodity" as in corn or oil. [But] like toasters or flashlights. The economic inertia is immense. Basically, the only ASIC attack you could do on the DRAM industry is to make your ASIC into a better DRAM. Which of course is a silly notion.
If you want a 2nd opinion, @BitcoinORama might help. Alex, GPUs simply accelerate an algorithm. You already gamed that. Can't game memory. An algo might be gamed. You can't game a solid proof of control of a physical resource. "Memory intensive algos" are a hope and a prayer. Do you want a hybrid Pow+DRAM example?
(@desantis): yes.
Ok... you have a PC. You mine as usual, pick your tx's & assemble your block. Set your nonce, but also set a DRAM size commitment (2, 4, 8 Gb etc). Hash that block, put that hash in memory. Then hash that result and put that in the next mem location, etc. If you use up the DRAM commitment, advance the nonce & start over. If you find the solution, keep hashing/storing to the end of your DRAM commitment, & publish. A lot more detail, but that's basically it. Prove you have a physical [common] resource.
(@desantis) what if I have multiple TB of RAM?
Sure, buy multiple TB of RAM, that's fine. But it can only be served by one hash source. (Most don't grok that critical point.)
(@desantis) the ability to acquire large quantities of RAM becomes the new ASIC, no?
The new ASIC... to a certain extent, but it's bound to a single hash node, and the current global installed base of DRAM, in conjunction with manufacturer contracts precludes that in any practical sense.
(@desantis) where can I read more?
No place in particular. Mentioned it a few times over the years. In detail only now.
(@pa49): I guess the point is that there's no monopoly on DRAM.
(@desantis) there will be once the manufacturers realize their hw prints money, no?
Not really about monopoly, but just a mature industry that a BTC ASIC startup would not have a hope in hell of prying open.
(@BitcoinORama) you can allocate memory to the same package as the chip if justified re: scrypt asics Right Alex, and here's an interesting question: if PoW+DRAM takes [off], will Micron add a tiny hashing core to its DRAM dies?
(@desantis) I think they would.
I think you're right. Under those circumstances, that's what I would advise them to do.
(@BitcoinORama) ahh now i think I get where you are going with this.
Thanks for your help Alex. Our talk the other night gelled my thoughts. yeah I started reading that http://Bitcointalk.org thread today. [It Prodded] me. But 2 more things:
miner has to complete the DRAM commitment but then use the very last hash as input to an algorithm that points back to multiple random results in the DRAM range & publish it.
Keeps him honest.
2nd, if he commits to 26G but finds the answer in the 1st 10M, he might want to quickly start over with a 1G commit if he lies about how much memory per hasher. So, counterintuitively, you make the difficulty setting for 2G twice as high as 4G. (And that was the convo from March 19th 2017. But, something I forgot to add:
DRAM hybrid mining difficulty.
For a PoW+DRAM hybrid, you don't actually have to synchronise them. They work independently. You just design your consensus algorithm to accept the "first past the post" from either of them. Bitcoin's timing is currently designed around 10 minute blocks, & just hashing.
This hybrid design will require a 3-variable DRAM difficulty approach to seamlessly integrate into the hashing paradigm economics. It is wise to accomodate the ASIC designer and miner, so give them 2 years to turn their profits and get out. So you want to make the DRAM part of it very difficcult at first.
Here's the 3 layers:
Layer 1 is the introductory layer: a reverse S-curve, because you want the DRAM success to start slow, then accelerate, then go asymptotic to its final value which will then eclipse pure PoW. It should be 100 times harder to get a block reward using DRAM at first.
Layer 2 is the core value: long term DRAM difficulty calculation - it is recalculated the same as the current Bitcoin one, every 2 weeks or so.
Layer 3 is dependent on your memory size commitment before you start to hash and store results. Reconciling these 3 variables gives you your difficulty level before you start a hash/store run.
Again, all you have to do to restore mining to the masses is tie it to a real world physical resource everybody has, and/or can easily get. I've said many times that the "proof" needs more than "decentralized" - it absolutely requires "massively diffuse" or it won't work:
ie,"a miner in every home".
And that's the software side of things. The hardware side (internet physical infrastructure that you don't control) is yet another sticky point. I have a couple of ideas about that, but I sense that very few will embrace the unavoidable tradeoffs. Thanks for your time.)
Update: I found a critical flaw
A miner with ASICs could just hash at full speed "off line" without storing results, find the solution, then pass the data + nonce to a PC with DRAM to reproduce that winning pass but store the results.
Solution: Instead of using the very last hash to compute a memory location to publish, you instead do it periodically during the hashing run, eg every 1024 hashes or 65536 or whatever. Use the value at that location to XOR with your last hash. Repeat through your run.
submitted by thimblewimble to Mimblewimble [link] [comments]

Nebulas Overview (up-to-date) and some things I am concerned about. What do you think?

NEBULAS PROJECT
Over the last few years, the world has seen a dramatic increase of blockchain projects to over 2,000 cryptocoins/ projects with a global asset value amounting to over $90 billion dollars.
With the popularity of blockchain technology, more blockchain-based application scenarios are emerging. For example, Ethereum community introduced the concept of smart contract to blockchain technology; Ripple implemented a global settlement system using blockchain technology.
With the mass volume of Dapps (decentralised apps) coming into the market, it can be hard for new projects to find the best templates and smart contracts they can use. Nebulas steps in here with the aim to build a search engine for blockchain applications and smart contracts. I.e. to say, the google of blockchain.
There are 4 pillars to the Nebulas project, if you understand these 4 pillars, you understand Nebulas.
Nebulas Ranking. Nebulas will give each Dapps a ranking. It does this by considering 3 dimensions: liquidity, interoperability and propagation of the address. The sum score of these 3 dimensions will be known as “unit of repetition”. A higher the unit of reputation represents the DApp or smart contract is used more, and is more valuable to the crypto community. The more valuable it is, the more highlighted it becomes on the search engine and makes it easier for a newcomer to pick the good technology over the not-so good ones. The longterm upside value of the ranking system then is a filter effect that filters the great from the not-so good, meaning we will see more and more applications built using great templates resulting in Nebulas platform being known for outstanding projects.
The second pillar is the Nebulas Force. Currently many blockchain projects have forks. The forks occur because the current system is unable to keep with the demands, and there is a difference in opinion about how to go about the upgrade. But Nebulas is trying to have foresight here, but building from the start, a system that can “self-evolve” to achieve faster computing, better resilience, and enhanced user experience under minimal intervention, thus nullifying the need for any future fork.
In Nebulas’system architecture, base protocols will become part of the data on the blockchain and achieve upgrade through the addition of data. As for smart contracts on Nebulas, upgrade is made possible by enabling cross-contract access to state variables at the bottom layer storage of smart contracts. So it’s a bit technical, but basically they have found a way to make Nebulus self-evolving, and if it happens Nebulas will be have a huge advantage over other public blockchains in terms of developmental and survival potential. It also allows developers to respond faster to loopholes with upgrades and prevents huge losses caused by hacking.
The third pillar is Developer Incentive Protocol (DIP) DIP is in essence, as it name suggests, an incentive! In order to create a good community for Nebulas, Nebulas will express appreciation to outstanding smart contract by rewarding them NAS (Nebulas tokens). An excellent smart contract depends on how many users are willing to use it. The more use, the greater the reward. But also high-value accounts with better smart contracts will also get better rewards. And this rewarding will be weekly! Which is huge, it also means they are not about creating competition, but really about rewarding/ incentivising good performance, otherwise they would have it as a yearly big reward for projects to compete stats. But its not a stats game, it’s just an incentive reward to perform better.
Back in May 2017, they did an experimental run to test if it was really accurate in picking out the top performers, The page is found in their whitepaper, but as you can see, the top-ranked contracts are more famous and more active in the calculation cycle, which are in line with our original intention of motivating the eco-builders.
Proof of Devotion Blockchain projects run off consensus algorithms. Consensus algorithims is done by miners and help to ensure that the next block in a blockchain is the one and only version of the truth, and it prevents derailing of the system or forking. The two most famous concensus algorithms are Bitcoin’s proof of work, and Ethereum’s recent proof of stake (Ethereum used to use proof of work, but earlier this year changed to proof of stake using Casper system). You can take part in this validation step to help the system do the work, and in return be rewarded in tokens. This is called mining or staking depending on the name of the consensus algorithm. Nebulas uses a unique consensus algorithm known as Proof of Devotion (POD). To participate in this, you have to be a developer of a DApp. To be a validator, you will need to stake a deposit of X amount of tokens. Then, multiple validators (per transaction) will have to agree on the result, and, each will be rewarded 1.5x the amount staked.
The masternodes of this system are called Book-keepers. They are chosen based on Nebulas ranking score and offered a chance to be book-keepers by offering a deposit. Full details of this process is not released yet, we expect more details in the future and some of the information I provide today may have changed by then.
Team: Ok, enough technical stuff. Let’s look at the team. The team is very impressive. The founder of this team, Mr Hitters Xu, was also the founder of Neo who was also the director of Ant financials blockchain platform (alibaba’s financial arm), you go down the list, there is more links with Neo and Alibaba, people from Dolphin browser, IBM, AirBnB US, Google, and so on. It’s very very impressive.
Capture1.PNG
My only question is “how do they look so young?” They all look very young, and this guy looks like he’s in high school!
Capture.PNG
But there you go, they are a solid team with the secret to youth. If they were in skin care business, I’d put all my money on them.
Partners: • You can see on their website their list of partners, • Recent notable partners include GIFTO- child project of UPLive, with millions of users. • And Dolphin Browser (added in the last week, not updated on the website yet)—mobile browser with over 200million users. (no surprise given their team’s resume) • So some decent partners, with lots of room to grow, but not bad considering they are only at testnet phase.
partners.PNG
Things to look forward too: • Mainnet launch soon! In march. That will come with the wallet of course. • Next major development in their roadmap is the self-evolving system, but that’s happening only in Dec. As an investor, nothing wrong with this, but as a trader, it’s a bit boring and in the meantime, they would be relying on new partnerships etc.. to provide some excitement to raise the token price.
A few points of potential concerns: • With Nebulas ranking, the first and bigger players may get a high unit of reputation, however, newer technology will start small in ranking and be likely drowned by the already high unit of reputation of existing older DApps.
• It is likely that with Proof of Devotion as well, because it relies on ranking system, big prominent companies will also stand higher chance for big returns as opposed to smaller newer i.e. any weakness in the ranking system will be reflected similarly in the proof of devotion system. This may make Nebulas only attractive to bigger players.
• Self-evolving feature of the Nebulas project is only due to be released in Q4, so it is still too early definitely say it will succeed. If it doesn’t succeed, it will be abig blow to the team. But given their solid team, this is unlikely to happen. The upside to this, is when it is announced that have a working self-evolving blockchain product, their worth is going to skyrocket, which investors will love to see.
• The next concern is that currently,only about 35% of total token supply has been released, this is very low, usually it is above 60-65% so this is almost half of what you would expect. They explained the low supply is to accommodate Developer Incentive Protocol rewards. But what happens when it reaches 100% supply and still have to give DIP. Is the system not sustainable then? Because the whole system is very reward based. Also with almost 2/3 of tokens still to be released, will this hinder the price inflation? Cos releasing tokens theoretically lower the price.
• My last not so positive comment is about the logo. It’s super plain. I was like “is this the black and white version?” Not trying to be rude, but it looks like a primary school kid drawing that hasn’t been colored. I personally, don’t think it’s a great enough representation of a $300million dollar company aiming to be a multi-billion dollar company. It just doesn’t look much effort was put into it. And its apparently a new logo a few months old! Oh dear. I’m sure they can do better. I hope they have another logo rebrand soon.
1.PNG
Do you have any concerns about this project too?
Source: Cryptolite-- Youtube; "Nebulas: Google of blockchain?"
submitted by imocrypto to nebulas [link] [comments]

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